Contents. Click on the links to go to a particular section:
Using Internet Sources
Guidelines for Citations
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS (in addition to ones already stated):
1. Papers should be typewritten or word-processed, and in either case DOUBLE SPACED. Any problems with legibility will diminish your grade.
2. Any words, thoughts or ideas you put in your paper that are not original
to you must be properly credited. Modern scholarship which you consult
(including Internet sources) must be cited in footnotes, endnotes or in-text
citations , and specific references to ancient sources must be given.
with insufficient citations and references will not receive a passing grade.
Note the guidelines given below for citations and, more particularly, the
guidelines for citing ancient sources (click HERE to
go there). You must give complete bibliographical information
for every source that you cite, either in the first citation of the source
or in a separate list of sources (aka. "bibliography") that you append
to the end of your paper.
SUGGESTIONS which may help you get the grade you want:
1. Read and cite ancient sources. Do not cite a modern author if he or she does nothing but repeat what a previous author says. Go back to the source.
2. With few exceptions, citing a general encyclopedia (even the Encylopedia Britannica) is usually a sign of an insufficiently researched paper. You may begin your research by reading an encyclopedia article, but don't let it end there. Similarly, m ost books that have the word "Handbook" or "Dictionary" in the title should be used for quick reference and further bibliography; they should not be used as major sources of information for a university-level paper.
3. Avoid relying for information on works about the ancient world that do not specify and cite the ancient sources on which its assertions are based. Such works tend to be superficial and unreliable.
4. Avoid citing something a professor (yes, even me) says in a class lecture. If you think something a professor says might be useful, talk to the professor to get tips on published sources.
5. Proofread your paper before handing it in. Frequent mistakes in spelling or grammar will result in a lower grade.
6. Avoid Quotationese. Here is a particularly bad example of Quotationese:
7. Make sparing use of the passive voice. The following sentences illustrate the difference between the active and passive voices of verbs:
passive voice: My homework was eaten.
The passive voice is a weak, weasely way of expressing yourself, and it is usually used to absolve someone of responsibility (as the dog in the second sentence) or to avoid responsibility yourself. You might for instance try to avoid the resear ch necessary to find out who defeated the Romans at Carrhae in 53 B.C. by writing "In 53 B.C. the Romans were defeated at Carrhae." This will impress no one.
USING INTERNET RESOURCES:
There's a lot of very useful and beneficial information available on the World Wide Web. It is a particularly good place for finding maps, illustrations translations of ancient texts, etc. When it comes to modern scholarship, however, you ha ve to be cautious. There is some good stuff out there, but unfortunately there's also a lot of material you should never be caught dead using in your paper, such as high school term papers, government and tourist-office propoganda, and your crazy uncle Al bert's theories on the pyramids. In general, you can use the same criterion for web material that you use for old food in your refrigerator: when in doubt, throw it out. More specifically, do not use or cite material on the web unless:
It includes specific references to ancient and modern sources
You can find a number of recommended Websites (where the ratio of useful material to BS will be relatively high) through the "Sites for studying the Ancient World" link on the course home page. One site that has a huge amount o f first-rate material of all sorts is the Perseus web site:
GUIDELINES FOR CITATIONS:
Citations may take the form of footnotes, endnotes or references in brackets () within the text of your paper. There are many methods of citation in use. You may adopt any method as long as it is consistent and easy to interpret. In general, for modern works (published after ca. 1700), citations and/or lists of sources should include at least the following information: Authorís name, Title of work, Place of publication, Date of publication, PAGE NUMBER(s). The most popular citation meth od in the humanties is the MLA (Modern Langague Association) standard. For a description and examples of this standard, go to:
Homer, Iliad 1.23. = Homer, Iliad Book 1, line 23.
Plutarch, Pericles 17. = Plutarch, Life of Pericles, section 17.
Aeschylus, Agamemnon 280. = Aeschylus, Agamemnon line 280.
Thucydides 2.16. = Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2 Section 16. (When an author, like Thucydides, is known for only one work, you need not put the title of the work)
If you are unsure how to make citations to any ancient work, consult