Notes for Lessons


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I. Suffixes
II. Bases:
	a) Notes on Forms
	b) Notes on Meanings
	c) Look-alikes

I. Suffixes: All the suffixes in lessons 31-33 are NOUN FORMING. In Lesson 31 there are two suffixes that play similar roles and have identical definitions: -ity (quality of, state of) -itude (quality of, state of) These two suffixes are de-adjectival, that is, they take adjectival (descriptive) concepts and turn them into nouns: BREV (short) + ity = BREVITY (the quality of being short) FUSC (dark) + itude = FUSCITUDE (the quality of being dark) There is a native English suffix which performs exactly the same function, namely "-ness". You can interpret many words using -ity and -itude by substituting -ness for the suffix: BREVITY = short-ness FUSCITUDE = dark-ness This doesn't work with every example of these suffixes, however. Consider the famous words: GRAV-ity LONG-itude LAT-itude: These words should mean (and occasionally do still mean) "heavi-ness", "long-ness" (length), and "wide-ness" (width), but their most common meanings have developed into something new. The rest of the suffixes in 31 and 32 are DEVERBATIVE: they take verbal ideas and turn them into nouns. Hence their definitions often involve the word "act" (the act of, the result of the act of, etc.). These suffixes include some of the most popular ones, such as -ion Which occurs in thousands of words, such as: SECT-ion (result of the act of cutting) con-CUSS-ion (result of the act of a thorough shaking) in-CIS-ion (act or result of the act of cutting into) Very frequently, however, this suffix appears in combination with the verb-forming suffix "-ate" or "-ite"; when it does so the "e" the first suffix disappears, leaving you with something that might be difficult to recognize at first glance: PARTITION (PART-it(e)-ion) PREDATION (PRED-at(e)-ion) Learn to recognize "-ation" and "-ition" as a combination of these two suffixes Another very popular deverbative suffix is "-ure", meaning "act of" or "result of the act of": PUNCT-ure: result of the act of piercing JUNCT-ure: act of, or result of joining RUPT-ure: act of, or result of the act of breaking The deverbative suffix "-or" appears in both lessons 31 and 32, first time as an agent suffix, with the specialized meaning "one who" or "that which"; then as a more general deverbative meaning "state of" or "result of the act of". You will have to be prepared for either meaning: TRACT-or: that which drags MOT-or: that which moves in-CIS-or: that which cuts into RIG-or: the state of being stiff PALL-or: the state of being pale VAL-or: the state of being strong TUM-or: that which swells? or the result of the act of swelling? In Lesson 33 you are given a large set of suffixes all of which mean "result of" or "means of" or (sometimes) "place for". Carefully note which forms occur in the middles of words (-cul-, -min-, etc), and which at the ends (-cle, -culum, -bula, etc.). As with the diminutive suffixes, be prepeared for alternation between different forms in different derivatives: SPECT-acle: means of looking SPECT-acul-ar: pertaining to seeing or a sight Also, like the diminutives, suffixes ending in -um or -a will lose that ending when followed by other elements: inFUND-ibulum: a funnel (means of pouring in) inFUND-ibul-ar: pertaining to the preceding... Finally in Lesson 34, you see the only verb-forming suffixes in the Latin part of the course. Of these, two (-igate and -esce) are comparitively rare. Here are some examples of both: FUM-igate: to treat with fumes or smoke VARI-egate: to make varied NAV-igate: to drive (pilot) a ship LIQU-esce: to become liquid efFERV-esce: to begin to boil or bubble The third verb-forming suffix, -fy, is extremely common and productive. As the small print in the book says, it is actually a form of the verbal base FIC- (to make, to do), and this is important to remember in understanding the variation in certain derivatives: LIQUe-fy: to make liquid LIQUe-FACT-ion: the act of making liquid VITRi-fy: to turn to glass VITRi-FIC-ation: the act of turning to glass BASES a) Notes on Forms: Watch out for the following bases, which can sometimes appear to be almost swallowed up by other elements: FA- (to speak): INFANT (in-FA-(a)nt): orignially "one who does not speak" INEFFABLE (in-ef-FA-(a)ble): "incapable of being expressed (spoken out)" I(T) (to go): TRANSIENT (trans-I-ent): "passing through, temporary" (compare transITion) AMBIENT (amb-I-ent): "going around, surrounding" STA(T) (to STAND) DISTANT (di-STA-(a)nt): "standing apart" related to this word is a very common word in anatomy: DISTAL (di-STA-(a)l): "standing apart, or located farthest from the mid-line of the body or the point of attachment of a limb" ("distal" is the opposite of "proximal" in anatomy. Your hand is at the "distal" end of your arm. Your shoulder is at the proximal end) From distal you also get a series of words in which the STA- base is even harder to spot: DISTOLABIAL (di-ST(a)-o-LABI-al): pertaining to the distal and labial surfaces (of teeth) DISTODORSAD (di-ST(a)-o-DORS-ad): running toward the back and distal portion of the body. b) NOTES ON MEANINGS: CERVIC- (neck): can refer to the neck that holds your head up, but just as often refers to the "cervix", i.e. the "neck" of the uterus: CERVICAL vertebrae: vertebrae of the neck CERVICAL cancer: cancer of the cervix Recall the same double-meaning for the Greek base TRACHEL- INCUD- (anvil): almost always refers not to any old anvil, but to the "anvil bone" which is one of the auditory ossicles (one of the small bones within the ear. The three auditory ossicles are the STAPES (stirrup-bone) MALLEUS (hammer-bone) INCUS (anvil-bone) INCUD-ECTOMY (surgical removal of the incus) MALLE- (hammer): also often refers to the auditory ossicle: MALLECTOMY (surgical removal of the malleus) but can also refer to actual hammers or hammering: MALLEABLE (capable of being shaped (by hammering, originally)) LUTE- (yellow, "corpus luteum") This base can mean simply "yellow" as in LUTEoFUSCous: having a dark-yellow colour LUTE-in: a chemical that produces yellow colouring But far more frequently refers to the "corpus luteum". "corpus luteum" means "yellow body" in Latin, and refers to a mass of yellowish tissue that forms in the ovary after ovulation. The corpus luteum forms at the site where the ovary follicle bursts releasing the ovum. Upon formation it begins to secrete the hormone progesterone, which helps the body get ready for pregnancy. LUTEINIZATION is the formation of the corpus luteum the LUTEAL PHASE of pregnancy is the phase initiated by the formation of the corpus luteum a LUTEOMA is a tumour composed of tissue similar to that of the corpus luteum c) LOOK ALIKES: PAT- to lie open (PAT-ent: obvious), vs. PATI- to suffer (PATI-ent: enduring, or one who suffers), vs. PAR- equal (PAR-ity: equality), vs. PAR-, PART- to give birth (primiPARa: one who has given birth for the first time, post PARTum: after childbirth), vs. PART- part, to divide (PART-ition: result of the act of dividing), vs. PARIET- wall (PARIET-al: pertaining to or serving as a wall) CRET-, CRE(SC)- to grow (con-CRETe, ac-CRET-ion), vs. CRET-, CERN- to separate, distinguish secrete (se-CRETe, dis-CRET-ion) LAT- to carry (re-LAT-ive, col-LATe) LAT- wide (LAT-itude, LAT-i-ROSTR-al) LEV- left (hand): (LEVoDUCT-ion: a tendency to be drawn toward the left; ambi-LEV-ous: the opposite of ambi-DEXTR-ous), vs. LEV- light (in weight) (LEV-ity: lightness, frivolity) FERR- iron (FERR-ous), vs. FER- to carry (af-FER-ent) CALCAR- bone spur (CALCAR-ectomy), vs. CALC- pebble, limestone (CALCACEOUS, CALCULUS), vs. CALC(ANE)- heel (CALCANEus) CLAV-club (CLAVI-form: club-shaped; CLAVi-CORN: having club-shaped horns), vs. CLAV- key, collarbone (conCLAVe: a closed meeting; CLAV-icle: the collarbone; subCLAVian: located beneath the collar- bone ILE- ileum (portion of the small intestine: ILE-itis) ILI- hip (ILI-o-COSTal: pertaining to the hips and the ribs) CAN-, CAND- white, gray (CAN-esc-ent: becoming gray), vs. CAN- dog (CANIPHOBIA, CANIFORM) FRUTIC- shrub (FRUTICICOLOUS: dwelling in shrubs; FRUTICOSE: shrubby) FRUCT- fruit (FRUCTIVOROUS: eating fruit; FRUCTOSE: fruit sugar)