A. 1-4. Parents:
Athena: Zeus & Metis (+ Zeus' head)
Dionysus: Zeus & Semele (+Zeus' thigh)
Apollo: Zeus and Leto
Ares: Zeus and Hera
Hermaphroditus: Hermes and Aphrodite
10. Phaedra & Hippolytus (also Bellerophon & Sthenoboea, etc.)
11. Pentheus, Lykourgus (myths involving rejection of the "invading" Dionysus)
12. Uranus, Pontus, Typhoeus, etc. (Titans, Hecatonchires & Cyclopes are born in union with Uranus)
16 Troy (or Mycenae)
19. Apollo & Dionysus
B. 1: Gods in myth have specific personalities, anthropomorphic form and human0like behavior. Gods in cult have powers that are not as limited to specific fields; form is often not anthropomorphic (ex: Aphrodite at Paphos) and often conflicts with their personification in myth (ex: Artemis of Ephesus vs. Artemis the virgin huntress)
2. Linear B is the writing system used by Mycenean Greeks in the Bronze age. Though used almost exclusively for economic records, the earliest attestations of many of the Greek gods are recorded in Linear B. Some gods once thought to be later arrivals, like Dionysus, appear in the Linear B tablets, while some very important gods, like Apollo and Aphrodite, do not.
3. Euhemerism is a way of interpreting myth that sees it as a distorted reflection of historical events. A Euhemeristic interpretation of the myth of Prometheus might be that Prometheus was a human rebel who championed the common people against the cruelty of king Zeus.
4. Anthropomorphism is the portrayal or imagining of non-human entities in human form: Zeus' beard, Hephaestus' lame foot and Ares' muscles are all examples of anthropomorphism.
5. A chthonic figure is one that is especially associated with the earth or the underworld. Examples: Hades, Demeter, Dionysus, Persephone, Hermes, even Zeus sometimes.
6. The myth of Demeter and Persephone (Persephone's departure to the underworld, Demeter's mourning and Persephone's return) is an example of the Dying god. Other examples are Aphrodite and Adonis, Inanna and Dumuzi, etc. These myths are most frequently related to the fertility of the earth and the cycle of the seasons.
7. "Indo-European" is a term used for a group of related languages that spread out from central Asia during the Bronze Age, including Greek, Latin, Sanskrit and the precursors to English and other European languages. Scholars notice that certain cultural features (including in the realm of mythology) tend to be shared among Indo-European cultures. Some of these features, though relatively few, show up in the Greek tradition.
8. After Zeus overthrows Cronus he must face the threat of Prometheus, the Titans, The Giants, Typhoeus, and the son who is prophesied to overthrow him (he avoids this by swallowing his pregnant wife Metis)
9. The Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic and Iron Races.
C1. Euripides introduces the Gods Aphrodite and Artemis, and relieves Phaedra of the blame by making her the unwitting pawn of Aphrodite and by having the nurse be the one to inform Hippolytus of her mistress' passion. Hippolytus, for his part, is not the blameless young hero of legend but instead a dangerously imbalanced and irascible youth.
2. Mystery cults are one of the main types of Greek (and later Roman) religion. They are cults that are frequently centered on chthonic figures and involved secret ceremonies, performances and displays, the contents of which were not to be divulged to non-initiates. Many mystery cults seemed to offer their initiates a blissful afterlife. Dionysus, Isis and Osiris, and Orpheus were all associated with mystery cults.
3. Ares and Aphrodite: Aphrodite represents Love, Ares represents Hate. The fact that the fierce, musclebound Ares gets all schmoopy and soft when he's around Aphrodite means that Love is stronger than Hate.
4. Hermes on the day he is born leaves his cave, finds a turtle, kills it and makes a lyre out of its shell. He then rustles the cattle belonging to his big brother Apollo, making the cattle walk backwards to confuse the trail, and invents fire and the process of animal sacrifice and shares the meat with the other gods. Apollo comes to the cave where Hermes was born to confront him, but Hermes says "leave me alone, dammit, can't you see I'm just a baby?" Eventually Apollo takes his case before father Zeus. Zeus determines that Hermes should give Apollo the lyre he invented as recompense for the lost cattle. That was the beginning of Apollo's career as a musician, which was pretty good since he clearly wasn't cut out for cattle ranching to begin with.
5. Inanna, desirous of adding "queen of the underworld" to her list of titles, descends to the realm below. Her sister, Ereshkigal, allows her to enter but compels her to remove an article of clothing at each of the seven gates of the underworld. She arrives naked and ticked off. She tries to force Ereshkigal from the throne, but is turned into a putrid slab of meat by the underworld gods. When the world becomes barren due to Inanna's "death", the trickster god Enki fashions creatures that are sent down to rescue her. Eventually Inanna is allowed to return on the condition that she find someone else to take her place, and for that honor she chooses Dumuzi the shepherd god, her own lover, who was the only one who was not conspicuously mourning her in her absence. Dumuzi goes down to the underworld but is allowed to return on one day each year.